The Mozart Project

Chronology: 1776–1780

1776
Month Mozart's Life Compositions World Events
January [3] Thamos, König in Ägypten (K. 345), with new choruses by Mozart, is performed in Salzburg. Concerto in B flat for Piano (K. 238)
Serenata notturna in D (K. 239)
[6] Abolition of the Corvée (forced labor) in France.
February   Concerto in F for Three Pianos, "Lodron" (K. 242) [5] Abolition of the Jurandes (privileged corporations) in France.
British Parliament passes Prohibitory Act, placing colonies' external trade under interdict.
March [31] Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento in E flat (K. 243) is performed at Salzburg for Palm Sunday. Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento in E flat (K. 243) [4] Washington occupies Heights of Dorchester.
[15] Congress resolves that the authority of the British Crown be suppressed.
[17] British evacuate Boston.
American troops are driven from Canada.
April   Concerto in C for Piano, "Lutzow" (K. 246) Russia cedes claim of Holstein to Denmark.
May   Offertory in D, "Venite populi" (K. 260) (mid-1776, exact date uncertain) [12] Chrétien Malesherbes resigns as French interior minister.
[17] Turgot is dismissed by Louis XVI.
[15] Virginia convention instructs delegates to Congress to propose independence.
June   Divertimento in F, "Lodron" (K. 247) [12] Virginia publishes its Bill of Rights.
July Serenade in D, "Haffner" (K. 250) is performed in Salzburg for the marriage of Elisabeth Haffner and Franz Xaver Spaeth. Serenade in D, "Haffner" (K. 250)
Divertimento in D (K. 251)
[4] Declaration of Independence is approved by Congress.
France loans 1 million francs to America.
August   Divertimento in F (K. 253)
Divertimento in B flat (Trio for Piano, Violin and Cello) (K. 254)
Britain recruits Hessian mercenaries for American war.
September     Free trade in corn abolished in France.
[15] William Howe captures New York City and occupies Rhode Island.
October     [11 and 13] Benedict Arnold is defeated in engagements on Lake Champlain.
Congress moves to Baltimore.
Jacques Necker is appointed finance minister in France.
November   Missa in C, "Credo" (K. 257) [20] Fort Lee surrenders to Britain.
[28] Washington retreats across New Jersey to Pennsylvania.
December   Notturno in D for Four Orchestras (K. 286) [26] Washington defeats Hessians at battle of Trenton.
1777
Month Mozart's Life Compositions World Events
January   Divertimento in B flat (K. 270)
Concerto in E flat for Piano, "Jeunehomme" (K. 271)
[3] Washington defeats British at Princeton.
February     [24] Accession of Maria I of Portugal.
March      
April     Marquis de La Fayette's French volunteers arrive in America.
May      
June   Divertimento in B flat, "Lodron" (K. 287)  
July      
August Mozart petitions the Archbishop of Salzburg to allow him and his father to seek their fortunes elsewhere. In response, the archbishop dismisses them both from his service; he later relents and allows Leopold to keep his post of deputy Kapellmeister.   [16] Americans defeat British at Bennington, Vermont.
September [23] Mozart and his mother, Anna Maria, depart Salzburg for Bavaria and Paris, where he hopes to secure employment. They arrive in Munich the next day.
[30] Mozart is received by Elector Maximilian III Joseph, but no post is offered.
Gradual in F, "Sancta Maria, mater Dei" (K. 273) [11] British defeat Americans at Brandywine, Pennsylvania.
[19] Burgoyne suffers heavy casualties at Bemis Heights, New York.
[27] British occupy Philadelphia.
October [11] Mozart and his mother arrive in Augsburg, where they visit his father's family, including his cousin, Maria Anna Thekla Mozart ("the Bäsle")
[30] They arrive in Mannheim.
  [4] Washington is defeated at Germantown, Pennsylvania.
[7] Burgoyne loses second battle of Bemis Heights.
[17] Burgoyne capitulates to Horatio Gates at Saratoga, New York.
November     [15] Congress adopts Articles of Confederation.
[20] British secure control of Delaware.
December   [25] Quartet in D for Flute, Violin, Viola and Cello (K. 285) Suspension of habeas corpus in England.
[30] On death of Maximilian III Joseph, Bavaria passes to Karl Theodor, Elector Palatine.
1778
Month Mozart's Life Compositions World Events
January In Mannheim, Mozart meets the Fridolin Weber family and falls in love with the second-eldest daughter, Aloysia.
[23] Mozart accompanies Fridolin and Aloysia Weber to Kirchheimbolanden, where Aloysia sings two arias from Lucio Silla (K. 135) for Princess Caroline of Nassau-Weilburg.
Quartet in G for Flute, Violin, Viola and Cello (K. 285a)
Concerto in G for Flute (K. 285c) (early 1778, exact date unknown)
[1] Karl Theodor departs Mannheim for Munich.
[3] Palatinate recognizes Austrian claim to Lower Bavaria.
February [2] Mozart and the Webers return to Mannheim.
[12] At a farewell concert for Mozart, Aloysia sings "Alcandro lo confesso" (K. 294), an aria he has composed for her.
  [6] France and United States sign treaties of alliance and of commerce.
[6] Britain declares war on France.
March [14] Mozart and his mother depart Mannheim.
[23] They arrive in Paris.
[11] Sonata for Keyboard and Violin in C (K. 296)  
April   Concerto for Flute and Harp in C (K. 297c) [5] British commissioners are appointed to negotiate with Congress.
May     [30] Voltaire dies.
June [11] Noverre's ballet, Les petits reins (K. 299b), with music by Mozart, is performed in Paris.
[11] Mozart's mother bleeds herself. After June 19 she will not rise from her bed.
[18] Mozart's new Symphony in D, later to be known as the "Paris" symphony, is performed at the Concert Spirituel.
Ballet, Les petits riens (K. 299b)
Symphony in D, "Paris" (K. 300a)
[17] Congress rejects British peace offer.
[18] Henry Clinton evacuates British troops from Philadelphia.
[28] Washington defeats British at Monmouth, New Jersey.
July [3] Mozart's mother, Anna Maria, dies in Paris.   [2] Jean-Jacques Rousseau dies.
[3] Prussia declares war on Austria; beginning of the War of Bavarian Succession.
[3-4] Wyoming massacre by Indians in Pennsylvania.
[8] Comte d'Estaing's French fleet arrives off Delaware.
August     [29] Americans abandon siege of Newport, Rhode Island.
British capture Savannah, Georgia.
September [26] Mozart leaves Paris.   [4] The States of Holland sign treaty of commerce with United States.
French seize Dominica.
October [14] Mozart arrives in Strasbourg, where later in the month he performs three poorly attended concerts.    
November [6] Mozart arrives in Mannheim.   [11] William Butler leads force of Indians to massacre the villagers of Cherry Valley, New York.
British capture St. Lucia from the French.
December [25] Mozart returns to Munich, where he stays with the Weber family.    
1779
Month Mozart's Life Compositions World Events
January [7] Mozart presents Electress Maria Elisabeth with six violin sonatas (K. 301-6) that he has dedicated to her.
[14] Mozart departs Munich and travels with the Bäsle to Salzburg.
[17] Mozart petitions the archbishop, asking to be assigned to the post of court organist. The position carries a yearly salary of 450 gulden.
  France defends Senegal against British attack.
February     [25] George Clark defeats a British force at Vincennes.
March   [23] Missa in C, "Coronation" (K. 317)  
April   [26] Symphony in G (K. 318)  
May     [13] Peace of Teschen ends War of Bavarian Succession.
France abandons Goree, West Africa, to Britain.
June   Sinfonia Concertante in E flat for Violin and Viola (K. 364) (summer 1779, exact date uncertain) [16] Spain declares war on Britain; siege of Gibralter opens.
[18] French capture St. Vincent.
July   [9] Symphony in B flat (K. 319) [4] French capture Grenada.
August   [3] Serenade in D, "Posthorn" (K. 320) British repulse American attack on Penobscot, Maine.
Congress sends force against the Indians in the Wyoming Valley.
French fleet dominates the English Channel.
September     [23] John Paul Jones in Serapis defeats H.M.S. Countess of Scarborough.
October      
November      
December     Britain ends restrictions on Irish trade.
1780
Month Mozart's Life Compositions World Events
January     [16] Admiral George Rodney defeats Spanish at Cape St. Vincent.
February      
March   Missa solemnis in C (K. 337) [10] Russia's declaration of armed neutrality, to prevent British ships from searching neutral vessels.
April     [17] Rodney's indecisive action against the French at Martinique.
[19] Harry Grattan demands Home Rule for Ireland.
May     Charleston, South Carolina, surrenders to the British.
June     [2] Duke of Richmond proposes manhood suffrage in England.
[2-8] "Gordon riots," against the Act for Catholic Relief, threaten Parliament in London.
Joseph II of Austria visits Catherine II of Russia for discussions leading to Austro-Russian treaty of 1781.
July     French troops under Rochambeau arrive at Newport, Rhode Island.
August   [29] Symphony in C (K. 338) [16] British defeat Americans at Camden.
September     [23] John André, captured British agent, reveals Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point to Clinton.
October [31] Aloysia Weber marries court actor (and amateur painter) Joseph Lange in Vienna.   [7] British are defeated at battle of King's Mountain, North Carolina.
Serfdom in Bohemia and Hungary is abolished.
November [5] Mozart travels to Munich for composition, rehearsal and performance of Idomeneo, rè di Creta (K. 366).
[12] He is received by Karl Theodor, Elector of Bavaria.
Idomeneo, rè di Creta (K. 366) [20] Britain declares war on Holland.
[29] Empress Maria Theresa dies. Her eldest son, Joseph II, succeeds her as sovereign of Austria, Bohemia and Hungary.
December Idomeneo, rè di Creta (K. 366) is rehearsed in Munich.   [13] Ireland is granted free trade with Britain.

References